Q6: Describe a teaching example of these two approaches to learning outside the classroom. Q7: Explain the educational advantages and disadvantages of these two approaches using these questions:. It combines the teacher guidance and structure of Field Teaching with the independent research focus of Field Research. Guided Field Research is an adapted form of field research for young students or students inexperienced in learning outdoors. A key step in planning effective learning outside the classroom is identifying the tasks to be completed at these three stages of the learning process.
See a table that describes some of these tasks. Q8: Analyse a case study of a geography class in Nepal that worked in their home village to develop a local sustainable development management plan as part of their learning outside the classroom. Taking students outside the school grounds involves a wide range of preparatory administrative, safety and legal responsibilities as well as educational plans.
These preparatory tasks include:. Planning to minimise risks to the health and safety of students is an integral principle for learning outside the classroom. Risk management is the name given to the identification, assessment and reduction of these risks. Being aware of potential risks helps us to think deeply about what we are planning to do, why we are doing it, and whether we have the skills to lead the activity safely.
Completing the module: Look back through the activities and tasks to check that you have done them all and to change any that you think you can improve now that you have come to the end of the module. Q9: A sustainable future requires an ethical approach towards other people and towards the natural environment. Using ideas from this module, and your own experience, write a brief statement of how you and your students will conduct yourselves while studying in the local community. Q When planning learning outside the classroom teachers need to be aware of the risk and safety issues involved.
List where you could get further advice for identifying and managing possible risks when planning field work in your community. The aim of the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development is promote and improve the integration of Education for Sustainable Development into the educational strategies and action plans at all levels and sectors of education in all countries.
It contains hours divided into 27 modules of professional development for use in pre-service teacher courses as well as the in-service education of teachers, curriculum developers, education policy makers, and authors of educational materials. All Rights Reserved. Learning outside the classroom Introduction Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3 Activity 4 Reflection Introduction This module provides examples of ways that learning outside the classroom can be used to facilitate Education for Sustainable Development.
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Objectives To develop an awareness of the positive impact that experiences outside the classroom can have on Education for Sustainable Development; To develop an understanding of the planning, organisation and risk management required for teaching and learning outside the classroom; and To identify appropriate strategies for teaching and learning outside the classroom. Learning in the local area Begin by opening your learning journal for this activity.
We have been studying waste management for two weeks and they really need to go and see what is being done locally. Teacher B Where will you go? Teacher C For this topic I always take my group on a bus trip to the waste treatment depot. I have worked out a good number of questions and things to point out. Teacher B I hate fieldwork. It always takes so much time to prepare worksheets and organise the kids.
I would much rather go myself and take slides of the important features.
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Then I can use them in school with my class and make sure they get all their notes complete. Teacher A I am not going to have many question sheets for them to fill in. I want them to make accurate observations and ask their own questions. Teacher C Why? Teacher A In class the other day two students said they saw some dead fish in the river.
Others said they had seen a report about this on television. They were really excited because the TV news was about the very topic they had been studying in class — and here was a local example. They want to visit the waste treatment depot to find out how wastes should be collected and treated so the poison is not put into the river any more. Observing and discussing processes of decision making and conflict resolution.
The Local Community Visiting a police station, clinic, bank, market or park and identifying the different tones of voice that people use. Visiting a youth centre, and record the different types of sounds as people go about different activities.
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Urban Centres Visiting an urban area and listening to the sounds of the city — a market, a railway station, a busy intersection, etc. Visiting and talking with people who live or work in the city. Developing a radio programme based on the sounds and voices of a town. Rural and Natural Areas Listening to the sounds of a forest, the seashore or a running stream. Listening to the sounds on a farm. Ask the farmer to help you identify them. The Local Community Visiting the local library and using it. Reading material that deals with local people and places, and relating this to learners own experiences.
Urban Centres Reading the signs posted in town, from traffic signs to advertising. Rural and Natural Areas Following written instructions for individual or group activities. Reading stories, poems, and non-fiction about natural history. Writing a description of a day in the life of a typical student. The Local Community Recording local data for later presentation, e. Writing about family, community or work-related experiences.
Urban Centres Writing a letter to the editor of the newspaper, about a matter of current interest.
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Rural and Natural Areas Writing a poem about your feelings while sitting in a beautiful natural area. Approaches to learning outside the classroom Begin by opening your learning journal for this activity. Objectives of Learning Outside the Classroom Learning outside the classroom can be teacher-centered and expository, or it can be more enquiry-based and student-centered.
A great range of objectives can be achieved through learning outside the classroom, including: The formation of attitudes and the development of an aesthetic awareness The development of understanding and knowledge The development of skills. The selection of objectives will depend to some extent upon the timing of the fieldwork within the sequence of learning activities: Early in the learning sequence, learning outside the classroom may be used for basic information gathering and increasing the motivation of students. Towards the end of a unit of work, learning outside the classroom may be used to draw a number of themes together.
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Integrated throughout a unit of work, learning outside the classroom can develop student understanding of concepts, generalisations and principles. Field Teaching Study of topic or theme in class. Teacher talk, textbook study, note taking, slide viewing, videos, etc. Field observations often teacher directed. Recording of information in the field.
Some field interpretation. Back in the classroom — further interpretation and explanation together — writing up field report. Field Research Identification of a problem as the result of direct observations; or from class work; or from special interests of students. Formulation of an hypothesis as a result of reading, discussion, thinking. Field activities to collect data to test hypothesis. Data analysis — processing information.
We have found that there are at least six critical elements of effective professional learning designed to build this capacity. Equity-centered capacity building is a complex process coupling both structural and technical processes with those that are more social, cultural and political Petty, School leaders must be aware of and attentive to issues of race, class, power and privilege and their implications for policy and practice. If leaders do not understand quality teaching and learning; if they cannot observe and analyze instruction; if they cannot provide teacher feedback that can change practice; and if they cannot establish a culture of learning, then the likelihood of improving student achievement and closing opportunity and achievement gaps is limited.
In describing equity-centered capacity building for school leaders, we begin with the content of the professional learning. We have already discussed four dimensions of instructional leadership with key strategies of equity-embedded practices.
These kinds of leadership practices must serve as a significant part of the core content for any professional learning designed to focus on equity-centered instructional leadership. Participants need both the knowledge base and leadership skills to:. In addition to having content that focuses on the improvement of instruction by leading with an equity lens, we have found the following five essential characteristics of effective professional learning or capacity building for school leaders.
Leaders and prospective leaders focused upon leading for equity need time for self-reflection. Leaders also need to reflect on their daily practice and lessons they have learned that they will carry forward in their work. Finally, equity-centered leadership is often met with strong resistance. Leaders sometimes feel very lonely in this work. Self-reflection can sometimes fuel self-renewal, a very necessary process for equity-centered leaders.
Not only do principals need time for self-reflection, we find in our work with school leaders that one of their preferred structures for learning is that of a community of peers and other educators who share similar work and have similar goals, experiences and challenges. It is in these communities where leaders learn together. They engage in inquiry together, using a range of meaningful data and strategic questioning to examine critical issues. Communities of practice also provide a place where leaders can safely deal with the strong emotions that inevitably arise in the work of equity-centered leadership.
It is in these communities of practice that principals can share their stories, the impact of the challenges they face upon them personally, emotionally and professionally, and their strategies. Professional learning needs to be job-embedded. It needs to be relevant; it needs to include feedback; and it needs to be able to facilitate a change in principal practice.